GRAMMAR

CONDITIONALS GRAMMAR

CONDITIONALS GRAMMAR

First (1st) conditional:

We use the first conditional to speak about likely events

e.g.        If I go shopping, I will buy some new trainers.

 

Word order change

e.g.        If I go shopping, I will buy some new trainers.

I will buy some new trainers if I go shopping.      NO COMMA

 

Change will (won´t, may, can)

e.g.        If I go shopping, I will buy some new trainers.

If I go shopping, I can buy some new trainers.

 

*When = instead of if                    e.g. When you finish work, you can call me.

*Unless                                             e.g. I can´t call you unless you finish work.

 

Second (2nd) conditional:

We use the first conditional to speak about unlikely or impossible events

e.g.        If I had $100,000, I would buy a new car.

 

Word order change

e.g.        If I had $100,000, I would buy a new car.

I would buy a new car if I had $10,000                     NO COMMA

 

Change will (wouldn´t, might, could)

e.g.        If I had $100,000, I would buy a new car.

If I had $100,000, I could buy a new car.

 

Third (3RD) conditional:

We use the 3rd conditional for a hypothetical past.

e.g. If I had saved more money last year, I would have gone to Bali on holiday.

 

Word order change:

If I had saved more money last year, I would have gone to Bali on holiday.

I would have gone to Bali on holiday if I had saved more money last year.             NO COMMA

 

Change would for (could, might):

e.g. If I had saved more money last year, I would have gone to Bali on holiday.

e.g. If I had saved more money last year, I could have gone to Bali on holiday.

 

Mixed conditionals:

All conditionals have a condition “If I have time,…” and a result “… I will do some exercise”. But these conditions can be both present or past. What a mixed conditional does is mix the 2nd and 3rd conditional to express this.

 

Study these examples:

If I had a mobile phone, I would have called you last week. The meaning of this sentence is simple. I didn´t call you last week because I don´t have a mobile phone at the moment.

The condition: “If i had a mobile phone” is in the present so we use the 2nd conditional whereas the the result “I would have called you” is in the past so we use the 3rd conditional.

 

If I had studied more at university, I would earn more money now. The meaning of this sentence is that I was a bad student and I didn´t study in the past and now I earn little money.

 

The Condition Is in the past “If I had studied more” so we use the 3rd conditional but the result “I would earn more money” is in the present so we use the 2nd conditional.

 

Wish/ if only:

We use wish or if only for something that we would like to change.

e.g. I wish I had more free time to spend with my children.

e.g. If only I had more free time to spend with my children.

 

(Past simple) change the present             I wish I had more free time to spend with my children.

(Past perfect) change the past                   I wish I had taken more free time to spend with my children.

(Would) annoyance/dislike         I wish I would have more free time to spend with my children.

 

CONDITIONALS

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