GRAMMAR

PRONOUNS AND RELATIVE CLAUSES

PRONOUNS AND RELATIVE CLAUSES

Pronouns can be tricky for language learners, but they are an essential part of both written and spoken English. For some simple exercises, click HERE

 

There are various types of pronoun that you must get the grasp of:

SUBJECT = what does the action (cause)

I am going shopping later

OBJECT = what receives the action

You never ask me questions

REFLEXIVE = when the subject and object are the same

I talk to myself a lot

POSSESSIVE = instead of a noun

This car is mine

POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS = PD + noun

That one on the corner is my house

 

SUBJECT OBJECT REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE DETERMINER
I ME MYSELF MINE MY
YOU YOU YOURSELF YOURS YOUR
HE HIM HIMSELF HIS HIS
SHE HER HERSELF HERS HER
IT IT ITSELF ITS ITS
THEY THEM THEMSELVES THEIRS THEIR
WE US OURSELVES OURS OUR

 

Relative clauses are used to give us more information about people or things:

 

There are two types of relative clause:

  1. Defining clause. This is necessary information that is needed to understand meaning

This is the book that I bought from the second hand book shop on the high street.

  1. Non-defining clause. This is to add unnecessary information.

This is the house, where I called you from yesterday, where I will celebrate my birthday.

 

Pronouns and their differences:

Who/that (people) – I can see a man who is jogging in the park.

Whom (preposition + person) – This is my friend with whom I usually work out [formal]

Whose (possession) – These are my students whose coursework is exceptional.

Where (place) – This is the bar where I normally have breakfast

When (time/date) – That was the day when we celebrated our wedding.

Which/that (thing) – These are the books which were ordered by mistake.

DO NOT USE THAT WITH (COMMAS) – This is the pen, that was expensive, we bought from Harrods.

USE WHICH INSTREAD – This is the pen, which was expensive, we bought from Harrods.

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