GRAMMAR · STUDENT

CONNECTORS AND COHESIVE DEVICES

The use of connectors is essential in the organisation of our speech and writing. It is important to understand a couple of things before we take a closer look at individual differences between cohesive devises.

  1. the difference between connectives and conjunctions. Many cohesive devices can be used as both a connective or conjunction, depending on how they are used.
  • Connective = joins two separate sentences
  • Conjunction = joins two clauses in a single sentence

 

Simple Ways to Improve your Written English

 

Language learners must be very clear on the functions of connectors so that they can use them effectively (note that some connectors can have several meanings)

ADDING INFORMATION
And, also, as well, in addition, besides, above all
GIVING EXAMPLES
Such as, for example, like, for instance, as follows:
REINFORCEMENT
Also, furthermore, moreover, above all, not only… but also
DEDUCTION
Otherwise, in other words, then, in that case
SEQUENCE
Firstly, secondly, thirdly, lastly, next, after, to start with, to finish,
CONTRAST
However, but, although, whereas, despite, in spite of, even though, though
SIMILARITY
Similarly, equally, likewise, in the same way
RESULT
So, therefore, as a result, because of this, consequently, thus, hence, in that case
SUMMARY
In conclusion, to sum up, in brief, therefore, to summarise, to finish off, on balance, in a nutshell, all in all, in the end
STATING THE OBVIOUS
Obviously, clearly, naturally, of course, surely, after all

 

However

´However´ can be used to begin a sentence but it MUST be followed by a comma, after the comma we put the sentence.

However, he didn´t arrive on time for the meeting.

 

However can also be used as a conjunctive adverb, it shows contrast:

´However´ can be used to join two simple sentences to make a compound sentence.

He is very busy, however, he will find time to go to the meeting.

 

But

But is used to connect two dependent clauses. You MUST use a comma before it

He said no more, but expressed his resignation to the outcome of the situation.

 

Although

Although is normally used at the beginning of a sentence. But it MUST be followed by a full clause

Although he works very hard, he isn´t very productive

He isn´t very productive although he works very hard

 

Though

Though can go at the befinning or end of a sentence and has the same meaning an although.

Though he works very hard, he isn´t very productive

He isnt very productive, he works very hard though

 

Whereas

Whereas has a similar meaning to on the other hand. We use it after a comma.

I love eating healthily, whereas my brother eats loads of junk food.

 

Despite/in spite of

Despite is always followed by a noun or the genund form of the verb (present participle). It has the same meaning as in spite of or although

Despite the weather, the BBQ will go ahead

Despite it raining, the BBQ will go ahead

(NEGATIVE) Despite it not being sunny, the BBQ will go ahead

 

Also

´Also´ is  to show similarity or something in common. We normally use it in positive sentences and has a similar meaning to and or in addition

He is academic. He also likes doing sport at weekends.

He is very clever. He is also very active.

 

Too

´Too´is  to show similarity or something in common. We normally use it in positive sentences and has the same meaning as also

I went to the cinema. He went to cinema yesterday too.

 

Because

Because introduces clauses of cause and reason. It connects a main clause with a subordinate clause. Synonyms of because can be since and as.

Everyone went out to the bar because it was my birthday.

Because it was my birthday, we went out to the bar.

 

Because of

We use ´because of´ plus a noun or the gerund form of the verb. It is a phrase that means as a result of

Because of the cost, we didn´t sign up for the course.

 

Due to

We use ´due to´plus a noun or the gerund form of the verb. It means because of

Due to his nastiness, we didn´t like him

Due to not having time, we dind´t study a lot

 

On account of

´On account of´introduces the explanation or reason for something, it means because of or  be the reason for

He didn´t get the job on account of his lack of creativity.

 

So

We use so as a subordinating conjunction to introduce clauses of result or decision and has the same meaning as thus, hence or therefore

You made the correct decision, so we will go along with the idea

 

Therefore

Therefore has a very similar meaning to so, it must be used between a semi-colon and a comma.

My dad supports Aston Villa; therefore, I support them too

 

Furthermore

Furthermore has a similar meaning to in addition. We use it at the beginning of sentences.

Furthermore, it is easier to learn phrasal verbs this way.

 

Moreover

Moreover is the same as in addition or furthermore. But it is used after a semi colon (;)

He didn´t really prepare for the exam well; moreover, he arrived late on the day and missed the first exercise.

 

Nevertheless

Nevertheless is a synonym of however. You need to use it at the beginning of a sentence

I didn’t like what she was telling me. Nevertheless, I accepted her decision.

 

Otherwise

Otherwise has a similar meaning to or else. But it can also be different or differently

We should go out this evening, otherwise we will not get to see Sam on his birthday.

 

It means differently here:

I think that it is the greatest group of all time, but my father thinks otherwise.

 

 

Passive ways of improving the use of connectors can include:

  • reading frequently
  • listening
  • watching TV with subtitles

 

To practice connectives, why not look at our grammar exercises

GRAMMAR STRUTURES – FREE STUDY MATERIAL IN PDF

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